3. Integrating and Contextualizing Evidence
In your papers, your quotes should be relevant to your claims. You need to introduce your quotes and contextualize them to show how they develop your argument. A well integrated and contextualized quote will support your analysis of the text and lead to further analysis and new ideas. Don’t just list quotes as examples. Work quotes into your argument; use the text to support and expand your well-supported and clearly expressed ideas. For more about using quotations, see the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).
Here is a brief list of structures that can help develop analysis (this is by no means comprehensive):
- That “___________” (page), according to Columbus, justifies…
- Columbus’s assertion that “___________” (page) reveals…
- When Columbus suggests that “________” (page), he reveals…
- By suggesting that “___”(page), Columbus shows ________ . That is, __________ (Your analysis here).
- (Your claim here). Columbus demonstrates this when he writes, “_____” (page). Here, Columbus not only exploits x, but also perpetuates y. That is, …. (Your analysis here).
- In Candide, Voltaire critiques x. When he writes, “____________” (page), Voltaire uses irony to destabilize y and to undermine z. (Add more evidence and/or further analysis to support your claims and/or add another layer of complexity to your original claim here.)
In a nutshell: Choose quotes that are relevant to your argument. Introduce your quotes in a way that integrates them into your argument, then analyze them afterward if needed to support and develop your ideas. There are many ways to do this.
QUOTES AND PARAPHRASE DO NOT REPLACE ARGUMENTATION. Your arguments should be BASED on textual evidence and SUPPORTED by it. USE STRONG, ACTIVE VERBS!